Muscle Anatomy


The rhomboid muscles, consisting of the rhomboid major and rhomboid minor, are located in the upper back and contribute to the musculature between the shoulder blades. They are relatively thin, quadrilateral muscles.

The rhomboid major originates from the spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae, while the rhomboid minor arises from the spinous processes of the C7 to T1 vertebrae. Both muscles also have an origin from the nuchal ligament.

Both rhomboid major and minor muscles insert into the medial border of the scapula. The rhomboid minor inserts at the scapular spine, while the rhomboid major inserts at the scapular border below the spine.

Functionally, the rhomboid muscles retract and stabilize the scapula. They pull the scapula toward the spine, facilitating movements such as pulling the shoulders back and maintaining scapular stability during activities involving the upper limbs. Additionally, the rhomboids play a role in scapular rotation and elevation, contributing to the complex dynamics of shoulder movement and posture.