KinX Learning

ELearning in the Kinesiology of Exercise

The Elbow Joint - Anatomy and Basic Movements

Posted by KinX Learning on February 18, 2016 .

The elbow joint is a hinge joint formed by the junction of the humerus and the radius and ulna bones of the lower arm. Strong ligaments hold the joint together in addition to the muscles and tendons. There is also movement between the radius and ulna bones, which allows for pronation and supination of the forearm.

In flexion the forearm moves toward the upper arm or vice versa. In extension the forearm moves away from the upper arm in an arm-straightening action. The reverse action, in which the upper arm moves away from the forearm, is also possible. This is seen in the lowering phase of a pull-up or chinup.

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4 Tips on the Seated Heel Raise Exercise

Posted by KinX Learning on February 17, 2016 .

#1 - The soleus muscle is capable of great muscular endurance. This is seen when the action is  repeated for a period of time or when the contraction is held for several or more seconds. Because of  this, for greater development you should do some holding in the top position or any intermediate  position. This allows you to develop strength at any point or over the full range of motion.

#2 - The seated calf raise is an excellent exercise for development of the soleus muscle. Because it is a  very strong muscle, you can use great resistance. Keep in mind that the soleus together with the  gastrocnemius can exert over 1,000 pounds of force. However, that does not mean that you can raise  this amount, because other factors are involved.  Thus, you should not start with extremely heavy weights: Start slowly and gradually increase the  amount of resistance that...

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2 Tips on the Bent-over Dumbbell Row Exercise

Posted by KinX Learning on February 16, 2016 .

The bent-over dumbbell row with both the neutral and pronated grips is a good substitute for the seated row for developing almost all of the back musculature. In this exercise you do not have to contend with the upper body moving forward and back. Here are 2 important comments regarding this exercise.

#1 - It is important that your body be kept stationary during execution of this exercise. To ensure this, shift most of your weight to the support arm to stabilize your body. Because of the extra support, this exercise is usually preferred to the seated row, free standing row, bent-over row, or T-bar row. Also, because you use less weight, there is less stress on your spine, which makes this exercise safer.

#2 - The key to effective execution is to maintain a stable body and to pull the arm through the full range of motion so that...

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Basic Movements of the Ankle

Posted by KinX Learning on February 15, 2016 .

Only two movements are possible in the ankle joint. The first is flexion, also known as dorsiflexion, or the movement of the toe area of the foot toward the shin. In this action there is a combination of inversion at the subtalar joint and dorsiflexion at the ankle joint when executing ankle joint flexion.

The second is extension, also known as plantar flexion, or the movement of the toe area of the foot away from the body. In plantar flexion there are simultaneous movements of the foot around the subtalar and ankle axes, i.e., a combination of eversion at the subtalar joint and extension at the ankle joint. When you are in contact with the floor, ankle joint extension raises your body, and when you are airborne, it points your toes.

The two movements of the foot in the subtalar joint are not true ankle joint movements but are usually...

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Anatomy of the Ankle Joint

Posted by KinX Learning on February 08, 2016 .

The ankle joint is formed by the junction of three bones: the talus bone of the foot and the tibia and fibula bones of the shin. The ligaments that tie and hold the ankle joint together limit the joint's voluntary movement to about 60 degrees. However, if the body's weight and external weights are used, the range of motion of the ankle can be increased.

The subtalar joint is located between the talus and calcaneus bones. This is the joint that is typically involves in ankle sprains or strains. It is an inter-tarsal joint that involves several bones of the foot. The  ankle joint involves only the two bones in the shin and one in the foot.

The subtalar joint allows for different positions of the foot and leg in response to weight-bearing,  particularly when running or jogging on uneven or curved paths. It is the main connection between foot  mobility and stability...

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The Gradualness Training Principle

Posted by KinX Learning on January 25, 2016 .

Regardless of your exercise program or level of performance, any increases in speed, flexibility, strength, resistance, repetitions, or sets should be very gradual. For example, if you are accustomed to doing twenty reps for two sets, you should not in one day change to fifty or sixty repetitions or do four sets. Your body is not ready for such abrupt changes and injuries may occur. To prevent injury and maximize your results, all gains should be gradual.
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The Agonist Muscle Role

Posted by KinX Learning on January 25, 2016 .

A muscle is called a prime mover, agonist, or muscle most involved when it is the main muscle involved in a concentric contraction. For example, in the biceps curl the biceps brachialis and brachioradialis are agonists for elbow flexion. Many muscles are prime movers in more than one action, as for example, the biceps is also a prime mover in forearm supination.
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Weight Training Exercises - How Many Repititions?

Posted by KinX Learning on December 11, 2015 .

One of the most frequently asked questions is how many repetitions should be done for each exercise. This is a valid question since the number of repetitions (together with the number of sets) is the key to the type of development that will be produced.

However, it is important to understand that there are no magical numbers that will produce the changes you desire. Strength, flexibility, muscle mass, and muscular endurance development are very individualistic. For some individuals doing a certain number...

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Weight Training Exercises - How Many Sets?

Posted by KinX Learning on December 11, 2015 .

It is generally assumed that when you lift weights you should do three sets of each exercise inorder to gain strength. This is a fallacy. If you are a beginner, doing one set will give you the same gains as doing two or more sets. The reason for this is that one set is more than adequate to sufficiently deplete your energy supplies to bring about supercompensation.

The higher your level of fitness and the more strength you want to gain, the greater is the number of sets. This also depends on the percent of maximum weight being used. In general, the more sets you do, the fewer the repetitions for each exercise. The more repetitions you do, the fewer the number of sets that are needed. In supercompensation your energy supply is not only restored to the original level, but additional energy supplies are deposited to allow...

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Why Study the Kinesiology of Exercise?

Posted by KinX Learning on December 09, 2015 .

The most accurate way to determine the key joint actions and muscles involved in a strength exercise is to analyze biomechanically and kinesiologically, the movements that are performed. By doing this you can also determine the effectiveness of the exercise in relation to muscle involvement and function. Only in this way can you determine which joint actions and muscles play a major role and if the exercise is effective and safe.

In books and magazines exercises are usually described in very general terms. As a result it leads to misunderstandings. An exercise analysis, however, answers questions such as: If the exercise is effective, why is it effective? What is the role of each joint action? What is the role of the different muscles that are involved? With this information it is possible to determine which actions can be changed to make the technique more effective? Also, how can joint, body,...

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